Phần 4: Vận dụng các kiểu câu

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1) Clip 1: Sentence Types

2) Clip 2: Vocabulary Exercise

3) Printable Documents

     a) Notes for Study

IELTS Tip

Use a variety of sentence types and structures in your writing.

Include a range of simple, compound and complex sentences as well as concession, modals, cause and effect and other grammatical structures.

These features make your writing effective, formal and more interesting.

SENTENCE TYPES

In your writing you will be giving reasons, stating the results of a situation, linking statements which contrast with one another and showing other relationships between statements in a sentence. Using different structures and sentence types to express these kinds of ideas adds variety to your writing and also demonstrates the grammatical range of your language, a criterion by which your writing is assessed.

 

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

There are four types of sentence structures in English:

• simple

• compound

• complex

• compound-complex

A simple sentence is also called an independent clause.

Simple sentence

Pollution is a serious problem in cosmopolitan areas.

subject

verb

pollution

is

 

A compound sentence consists of 2 or more simple sentences and a conjunction.

Compound sentence

2 simple sentences

Pollution is a serious problem in cosmopolitan areas. The government is addressing the issue.

Compound sentence

Pollution is a serious problem in cosmopolitan areas but the government is addressing the issue.

but – coordinating conjunction expressing contrast

 

A complex sentence consists of an independent and a subordinate clause.

Complex sentence

Although the government is addressing the issue of pollution, it is still a serious problem in cosmopolitan areas.

Although – subordinating conjunction expressing concession

 

A compound-complex sentence consists of 2 or more independent clauses and 1 or more subordinate clauses.

Compound-complex sentence

Although the government is addressing the issue of pollution, it is still a serious problem in cosmopolitan areas and affects people’s health.

although – subordinating conjunction expressing concession

and – conjunction which joins two independent clauses

it is still a serious problem in cosmopolitan areas

and

it …. affects people’s health.

 

Connecting your ideas within sentences shows how the meanings of the clauses are related. For example, they may be contrasting ideas, providing a reason, adding another example or cause.

Using a variety of sentence structures to express these kinds of meanings provides an indication of the grammatical range of your language skills and is a criterion by which your writing is assessed.

Here is a Writing Task 2 question and a sample body paragraph which respond in part to the question.

_________________________________________________________________

Write about the following topic.

Society’s responsibility towards the environment today is reflected in the measures taken in disposing of waste through recycling.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

_________________________________________________________________

The body paragraph below presents opposing arguments to the topic that society’s responsibility towards the environment is reflected in the measures taken in disposing of waste through recycling.

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